Organ transplantation are fairly common today were not successfully performed until the first half of the last century. In 1950, the first successful organ transplantation was performed in humans- a kidney transplant done by the urologist Richard Lawler in Chicago (USA). Prior to this, transplants had been only successfully performed on animals.
In the early days of organ transplantation, there was a lack of immuno-suppressive drugs. This usually caused the rejection of the transplanted organ by the body of the receiver.
In the following decade, the development of such drugs made it possible to reduce cases of rejection, allowing new types of transplants to be performed, such as heart transplantation (1967 in South Africa) and liver transplantation (1967 in the USA).
Until the mid- 1980s, there were no further advances with respect to new transplanted organs, but there was accumulation of expertise in relation to procedures already known.
In recent decades, there has been an increased success rate of transplants, as well as the development of new methodologies to perform more types of organ transplants such as hand (1998 in France), ovary (2005 In India), face (2010 in Spain) and even the penis (2014 in South Africa).